Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Pure Iron Fertilization of Oceans

Study Reveals Iron from Sea Floor Feeds Life at Surface

University of Southern California

FEBRUARY 09, 2009
Iron dust, the gold of the oceans and rarest nutrient for most marine life, can be washed down by rivers or blown out to sea or – a surprising new study finds – float up from the sea floor.

The discovery, published online Feb. 8 in Nature Geoscience, connects life at the surface to events occurring at extreme depths and pressures.

The two worlds were long assumed to have little interaction.

A team from the University of Southern California, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory took samples from the East Pacific Rise, a volcanic mid-ocean ridge.

The group found that organic compounds capture some iron spewed by hydrothermal vents, enabling it to be carried away in seawater.

Iron trapped in this way does not rust.

For the scientists, discovering shiny iron in the ocean was like fishing a dry sponge out of a bath.

"Everything we know about the chemical properties of iron tells us that it should be oxidized. It should be rusted," said team leader Katrina Edwards of USC.

The metal's purity has practical value. Aquatic organisms metabolize pure iron much more easily than its rusted form, Edwards said.

How much captured iron floats into surface waters remains unknown. But any that does would nourish ocean life more efficiently than the oxidized iron from regular sources.

"This is one potential mechanism of creating essentially a natural iron fertilization mechanism that's completely unknown," Edwards said.

Some marine scientists have called for iron fertilization because of the metal's crucial place in the aquatic food chain. Iron is the limiting nutrient in most parts of the oceans, meaning that its scarcity is the only thing standing in the way of faster growth.

Iron's equivalent on land is nitrogen. Crop yields rose dramatically during the 20th century in part because of increased nitrogen fertilization.

The expedition team discovered the phenomenon of iron capture serendipitously. Edwards and her collaborators were studying deep-sea bacteria that catalyze the iron rusting reaction.

Of the possible reactions that support microbial communities on rocks, iron oxidation is one of the most important, Edwards explained.

Unfortunately, she added, "it's probably the least well understood major metabolic pathway in the microbial world."

The bacteria involved do not grow well in culture, so the researchers are using a range of molecular techniques to search for genes related to iron oxidation.

One major question involves the importance of bacteria-catalyzed oxidation versus the conventional rusting process. How much of the world's iron is deposited with bacterial help? And how much escapes both bacteria and the natural oxidation process?

The sea floor holds the answer.

The samples were collected continuously using a remote sampling device deployed and retrieved from the research vessel Atlantis between May 16 and June 27, 2006.

The other team members were Brandy Toner of Woods Hole, who was first author on the Nature Geoscience study; Steven Manganini, Cara Santelli, Olivier Rouxel and Christopher German, also of Woods Hole; James Moffett, professor of biological sciences at USC; and Matthew Marcus of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

The research was supported by the National Science Foundation, NASA and the Department of Energy.

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Chesapeake 2000 - Targets


Nutrients and Sediments

 Continue efforts to achieve and maintain the 40 percent nutrient reduction goal agreed to in 1987, as well as the goals being adopted for the tributaries south of the Potomac River.

 By 2010, correct the nutrient- and sediment-related problems in the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries sufficiently to remove the Bay and the tidal portions of its tributaries from the list of impaired waters under the Clean Water Act. In order to achieve this:

1. By 2001, define the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources and then assign load reductions for nitrogen and phosphorus to each major tributary;

2. Using a process parallel to that established for nutrients, determine the sediment load reductions necessary to achieve the water quality conditions that protect aquatic living resources, and assign load reductions for sediment to each major tributary by 2001;

3. By 2002, complete a public process to develop and begin implementation of revised Tributary Strategies to achieve and maintain the assigned loading goals;

4. By 2003, the jurisdictions with tidal waters will use their best efforts to adopt new or revised water quality standards consistent with the defined water quality conditions. Once adopted by the jurisdictions, the Environmental Protection Agency will work expeditiously to review the new or revised standards, which will then be used as the basis for removing the Bay and its tidal rivers from the list of impaired waters; and

5. By 2003, work with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and others to adopt and begin implementing strategies that prevent the loss of the sediment retention capabilities of the lower Susquehanna River dams.

It appears that these goals have not been met.

Chesapeake Bay's health not improving


Report: Chesapeake Bay's health not improving
The Associated Press • March 19, 2009

WASHINGTON — A report finds the overall health of the Chesapeake Bay did not improve last year, despite increased restoration efforts.

An annual study on the nation’s largest estuary released Thursday by the Chesapeake Bay Program found that the bay continues to have poor water quality and degraded habitats. The report cited pollutants caused by agriculture and suburban runoff.

The report found that the population of the bay’s hallmark blue crabs declined last year to 120 million, a decrease of 23 million from 2007.

There was some good news, however. There was an 18 percent increase in underwater bay grasses from 2007. The grasses are important because they filter excess nutrients from the water and provide habitat and food for fish.

The lack of improvement is inspite of introduction of Nutrient trading in Pennsylvania to reduce Nutrient level in the Potomac and Chesapeake Bay.

Nutrient Trading (Nitrogen and Phosphorus)


World Resources Institute

About NutrientNet

What is NutrientNet?
Who is building NutrientNet?
Who uses NutrientNet?
Who are the NutrientNet partners?
Can NutrientNet be adapted for use in my watershed?
What is NutrientNet?

NutrientNet is a suite of web-based tools used to facilitate market-based approaches to improving water quality. NutrientNet has been used extensively for water quality trading programs, but it also has been used for other market-based approaches, such as reverse auctions.

Through a series economic analyses, including Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading's Potential to Cost-Effectively Improve Water Quality., the World Resources Insitute determined that a number of factors affect the adoption of market-based approaches to water quality improvement. These include high transaction costs, the credibility of nonpoint source reductions, and public participation and oversight. By developing a tool that reduces transaction costs, standardizes the calculation of nonpoint source reductions, and allows the public to view market activity, WRI recognized that it encourage the adoption of market-based approaches. NutrientNet was created to achieve these goals.

Reducing Transaction Costs: NutrientNet provides a system for buyers and sellers to trade nutrient credits, as well as an easy way for program administrators to track projects, credits and trades.

Standardized Calculations of Nonpoint Source Reductions: NutrientNet provides an easy-to-use web-based interface for calculating nutrient reductions and credits. Users only need to login to NutrientNet and enter in characteristics of their agricultural operation, such as field size and soil type. NutrientNet's calculation engine uses the latest scientific research to accurately calculate nutrient reductions for best management practices.

Public Participation and Oversight: NutrientNet makes market activity available to the public. For example, in water quality trading programs, the public can average market prices and completed trades. NutrientNet also provides general information about nutrient trading and seeks to share lessons learned across watersheds.

Who is building NutrientNet?
The creation of NutrientNet is led by the World Resources Institute (WRI), a non-profit environmental group that provides information, ideas and solutions to global environmental problems.

Who uses NutrientNet?
NutrientNet has been developed for 4 watersheds in 5 states (plus the District of Columbia).

Potomac and Kalamazoo Watershed Pilot Project: Developed in 2002-2003, this site was a proof-of-concept for water quality trading in the Potomac and Kalamazoo (MI) watersheds.

Conestoga Watershed (PA) Reverse Auction Site: Developed in 2005, this site was used to conduct two reverse auctions that allocated $486,000 to agricultural management practices based on the lowest cost-per-pound of phosphorus reduction. A total of 92,000 pounds of phosphorus was estimated to be reduced over the lifespan of the projects.
» Read the WRI policy note: Paying for Environmental Performance: Using Reverse Auctions to Allocate Funding for Conservation

Kalamazoo Watershed NutrientNet: Starting in 2005, WRI developed a full-featured version of NutrientNet for Michigan's water quality trading program in the Kalamazoo watershed. This version contains phosphorus and sediment calculation tools for over 20 agricultural management practices, and a marketplace is current in development.
» Visit the website: Kalamazoo Watershed NutrientNet

Pennsylvania State Trading Program: Developed for Pennsylvania's state nutrient trading program, this version of NutrientNet contains nitrogen and phosphorus credit calculation tools, a robust marketplace and an extensive administrative system for trading program managers at the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. This project involves trading in both the Susquehanna and Potomac watersheds.
» Visit the website: Pennsylvania NutrientNet

West Virginia Potomac Watershed: WRI is working with West Virginia University, the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, and watershed stakeholders to develop NutrientNet for the Potomac Watershed in West Virginia. This site is currently under development and is expected to be released in 2008.

Who are the NutrientNet partners?
A number of organizations and agencies are parterning with WRI to develop NutrientNet, including:

Department of Agricultural Economics, Kansas State University, United States
EPA Chesapeake Bay Program, United States
Gun Lake Tribe, United States
Keiser and Associates, United States
Lancaster County Conservation District, United States
Michigan State University (MSU), United States
Natsource, United States
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP ), United States
Pennsylvania Environmental Council, United States
Pennsylvania State University, United States
Texas A & M University, United States
University of Arkansas, United States
US Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States
West Virginia University (WVU)
Can NutrientNet be adapted for use in my watershed?

Friday, March 27, 2009

China launches vast water clean-up


China launches vast water clean-up
From: SciDev.Net
Weixiao Chen and Yidong Gong
17 March 2009
[BEIJING] A project to improve water quality in China has been launched by the government, which says it is the largest expenditure on environmental protection since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949.

Water pollution is a grave problem in China

The project, which has an estimated budget of more than 30 billion Chinese yuan (around 4.4 billion US dollars) over 12 years, aims to counter the deteriorating water quality affecting millions of Chinese people and their livelihoods.

The Water Pollution Control and Management Project - known as 'Water Special Project' - will focus on the treatment of whole river basins instead of the conventional approach of end-pipe treatment, according to Meng Wei, chief engineer of the project and director of the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences.

By taking this approach the treatment of the highly polluted Lake Tai, for example, the third largest freshwater lake in China, will benefit not just Shanghai but also the eastern provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

Coordinated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the aim of the project is to guarantee safe drinking water and improve the overall water environment, Meng said.

The safety of drinking water has become a great concern in China. Some 64 per cent of the water reaching urban areas is categorised as suitable only for industrial or agricultural purposes and half of cities have suffered groundwater pollution to some degree, according to Liu Yanhua, vice minister of science and technology, at the launch of the project last month (19 February).

In the summer of 2007 an outbreak of algae around Taihu Lake left more than one million people in the city of Wuxi - in the economically-advanced Jiangsu Province - without access to drinking water for two days.

And when a drought reached its peak in early February it was affecting 10.7 million hectares of farmland in at least 12 provinces in northern China. (See China's water deficit 'will create food shortage')

A number of demonstration projects will be carried out at major rivers across China, such as Haihe, Huaihe, Liaohe and Songhuajiang, as well as Lake Tai and the Three Gorges.

But Qin Boqiang, a researcher at the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, said the government should focus on controlling the sources of pollution instead of treating it after it happens.

"We cannot develop economy at the expense of the environment," he told SciDev.Net

The water programme is one of the 16 key projects listed in the National Mid-Term and Long-Term Science and Technology Development Plan (2006-2020) issued by the State Council in 2006, which provides guidelines for China's science and technology development for the next 15 years.

N, P and Si in Oceans - non-siliceous phytoplankton vs siliceous phytoplankton


Effects of Changes in Nutrient Ratios of River Water on Marine Ecosystems

As human activities increase, the inflowing of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) into oceans is also augmented. On the other hand, the amount of silicon (Si) that flows into oceans tends to decrease since silicon settles and gets trapped in still bodies of water such as dam reservoirs. It is therefore likely that, in these conditions, non-siliceous phytoplankton (including the harmful red tide algae) can thrive better than siliceous phytoplankton, which are mostly harmless. Our research aims to clarify these ecological changes through ocean observation by ferry and ecosystem modeling.


This study and approach confirms our views that Diatoms (siliceous phytoplankton) are good and Green, Blue Green Algae and Red Tides (non-siliceous phytoplankton)are not useful or are even harmful.

Green Algae in an Aquarium Tank

The dissolved oxygen level is 41.5 mg / litre at 2 pm in the afternoon.
This is supersaturation of over 460 % of the saturation limit of 9 mg / litre.

Interesting book on Diatoms

The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology
Richard Gordon1,,Dusan Losic2,Mary Ann Tiffany3,Stephen S. Nagy4andFrithjof A.S. Sterrenburg5


Diatoms are unicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic algae that are found in aquatic environments. Diatoms have enormous ecological importance on this planet and display a diversity of patterns and structures at the nano- to millimetre scale. Diatom nanotechnology, a new interdisciplinary area, has spawned collaborations in biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. We survey diatom nanotechnology since 2005, emphasizing recent advances in diatom biomineralization, biophotonics, photoluminescence, microfluidics, compustat domestication, multiscale porosity, silica sequestering of proteins, detection of trace gases, controlled drug delivery and computer design. Diatoms might become the first organisms for which the gap in our knowledge of the relationship between genotype and phenotype is closed.


Friday, March 20, 2009

US Govt funding for Small Businesses

Biotechnology and Chemical Technologies
Proposal Due Date: June 9, 2009


BT.3 Environmental Biotechnology: Such applications include but are not limited to methods to reduce human ecological and environmental impacts, microbial contamination sensing and control, removal of toxic compounds for human and animal safety, novel bioremediation technologies, point of use water treatment, midstream wastewater treatment technologies, treatment of runoff, environmental compatibility and sustainability, pathogen and toxin diagnostics, control of exotic diseases, control of introduction of exotic species, nanobiotechnology solutions, water treatment, improvement of the environment, monitoring of pollutants, and generally decreasing the environmental impact of humans on the planet.

Biotechnology and Chemical Technologies
Proposal Due Date: June 9, 2009

Please direct inquiries to:

Greg Baxter (gbaxter@nsf.gov) for Subtopics under Biotechnology

Administrative Information

The required 400-word project summary should discuss the intellectual merit and broader impact in two separate ~200 word paragraphs that specifically answer the following questions: Paragraph 1) Intellectual merit: What is the problem to be solved? How will the problem be solved? What is the innovation in the proposed approach? Paragraph 2) Broader Impacts: Why is your solution better than competitive technologies? Who is going to buy your solution? Who are the other key players? If these answers are not addressed, the proposal may be returned without review.

Proposals must address the potential for commercialization of the innovation and how it would lead ultimately to revenue generation. It is important that the proposed technology increase the competitive capability of industry, be responsive to societal needs, and is sensitive to solving "real" problems driven by critical market requirements. There is considerable overlap between the subtopics and proposers should pay attention to the areas indicated under each subtopic to assist the program in placing these proposals on review panels.

Letters of Support for the Technology

Inclusion of letters of support for the technology within the proposal is strongly encouraged for proposals being submitted to this solicitation. Letters of support act as an indication of market validation for the proposed innovation and add significant credibility to the proposed effort. Letters of support should demonstrate that the company has initiated dialog with relevant stakeholders (potential customers, strategic partners, or investors) for the proposed innovation and that a real business opportunity may exist should the technology prove feasible. The letter(s) must contain affiliation and contact information for the signatory stakeholder.


Any US Small Business interested in working on Nualgi with funding from US govt may contact us.

Iron Fertilization - which form of Iron to use



The Southern Ocean encircling Antarctica is rich in the nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicon but phytoplankton growth is limited by the supply of iron which is a crucial ingredient of all organisms. Iron is highly insoluble in sea water, so, unlike the other nutrients, is quickly lost in sinking particles. Addition of trace amounts of iron to these waters, whether from natural sources (contact with land masses and via settling dust blown of the continents) or by artificial iron fertilization (from a ship releasing dissolved iron sulfate to the surface layer), results in rapid algal growth leading to development of phytoplankton blooms.

Not if Nualgi is used - the iron in Nualgi is stable in water for a very long time.
Nualgi has a silica base, this keeps the iron stable. The nano size particles of Nualgi remain dispersed in water for a long time.

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

LinkedIn post comment

This is a comment on the post about Nualgi on LinkedIn.


Subject: New comment (#1) on "Nualgi - Diatom Algae - Oxygen"

"This is the sort of new thinking we need to dig us out of this recession. We need to divert redundant resources into building new industries which replenish rather than poison the planet.

This could be a component of a larger scheme:

1. Instead of causing landfill sites to overflow, compost organic waste without air – to produce bio-gas (fuel) and fertiliser to put back on the land

2. Add local algae for more compost

3. Add sea minerals for richer land and immunity to even cancer

4. Do this, using marine algae, from the desert coasts to reclaim 75% of the world’s land to make all the world needs.

This will solve the fuel, food, nutrition & waste crisis in one go, taking excess carbon out of the air to reverse climate change, and enabling us to grow our economy working with Nature, rather than plundering or poisoning it."

Posted by Greg Peachey

LOHAFEX Excerpts from the reports


The iron sulphate solution was released through a hose trailing in the ship’s propeller wash while she spiralled around the drifting buoy in widening concentric circles one km apart.

Since the iron is rapidly taken up by the biota or converted into insoluble colloidal rust, the inert gas sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) was continuously added in trace amounts to the iron solution in order to mark the fertilised patch as SF6 can be measured at very low concentrations. A total of 480 g of this biologically inert gas is sufficient to mark the entire patch. A tank was emptied in about 2.5 hours and was filled by teams of scientists while the contents of the other was being released. Iron sulphate tablets are used to treat patients suffering from anaemia and we used the same quality grade sold in gardening shops and department stores for treating lawns. Nevertheless, the substance is converted into rust which stains clothing and large amounts of the dust can irritate eyes and nose so we took maximum
precautions to reduce exposure to the minimum by having those doing the job wear protective clothing and masks. An area of 300 km2 was fertilised with a total of 10 tonnes of iron sulphate which took 30 hours to complete. We administered only half the quantity originally planned because the mixed layer was only half as deep as expected.


As expected, diatoms were the first phytoplankton group to respond to iron fertilization but their further growth was limited by silicon deficiency.

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Nualgi - video of a lake in Hyderabad


The video of the impact of the use of Nualgi on a lake in Hyderabad is available on You Tube.

This clearly shows the oxygen bubbling up, due to the bloom of Diatom Algae.

The Blue Green Algae crashed out in a couple of hours.
The lake is visibly dirtier after 2 hours, this is part of the cleaning up process.

The organic matter that had settled down on the lake bed over many years, becomes loose and floats up.

Thus the lake is fully cleaned up from the bed upwards.

The oxygen bubbling is visible for over 2 weeks.

This would be visible only in heavily polluted lakes and not in lightly polluted lakes, since the Diatom bloom would be more when more nutrients are available in the water.

The dissolved oxygen level raises steadily over a few days.

The Diatoms are consumed by Zooplankton and these by fish, so there is no residue.

Tuesday, March 10, 2009

Dwindling fish catches


Dwindling catches

Ocean temperature is one of the primary environmental factors that determine the geographic range of a species. A paper published recently in the journal Fish and Fisheries has used computer modelling to project the global impact of climate change on biodiversity with reference to 1,000-odd fish species. The study has shown that the only way for the tropical fish, with their inability to regulate their body temperature, to survive in warming oceans would be to migrate to cooler waters at higher latitudes. The warming of the oceans would affect the sub-polar species differently. A two-to-four-fold limit to temperature tolerance compared to tropical species and a very limited species diversity would have a big impact in the polar regions. Local extinctions in the sub-polar, tropical, and semi-enclosed regions as well as migration of species to cooler latitudes would affect nearly 60 per cent of present fish biodiversity. Such a mass-scale disturbance is very likely to disrupt the marine ecosystem. Though warming oceans would affect fish whether they live at the surface level or at depths, the shift to an extent of 600-odd km would be seen in the case of surface-living species.

Local extinctions in the tropics will have a great effect on food security of developing countries. According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation, the direct impact of climate change on fisheries would be more pronounced in the developing and least developed countries where about 42 million people work directly in the sector. Two-thirds of the most vulnerable countries are in tropical Africa. It is a fact that reliance on fish protein is directly related to the level of development. In the developing countries, 2.8 billion people depend on fish products for 20 per cent of animal protein. The only way to reduce the magnitude of the impact is to take urgent measures to check the current trend of carbon pollution and limit the average global temperature rise to 2 degrees C by 2100, as against the anticipated 6 degrees. Dwindling fish catch will be one of the many adverse consequences of uncontrolled global warming. Several studies published since the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change’s 4th Assessment Report show that carbon emissions are rising faster than expected, and worldwide action to bring them down brooks no delay.

Nualgi can increase fish yield and help absorb large amounts of CO2

Fish Kill in Mir Alam Tank, Hyderabad


HYDERABAD: In a rare phenomenon, hundreds of dead fish were found floating along the shoreline of Mir Alam lake from Sunday morning.

Locals, who first noticed this phenomenon, started collecting dead fish for consumption before better sense prevailed and they subsequently desisted.

All through the day, the lake shoreline was crammed with inquisitive locals, trying to witness and ‘argue’ over the reasons behind the phenomenon.

Risky affair

Hundreds of dead fish were found floating inside the phytoplankton thriving in abundance in the lake.

“I was shocked to see dead fish floating. Everyday, I venture inside on my boat to catch fish but today it was different. Even the big fish were dead and floating. Many took away several big fish before we asked them not to consume. It could be risky because the lake is polluted,” says Ali Raza, a local resident.

Residents claimed that they had never witnessed this phenomenon earlier.

“We have informed about it to zoo authorities. They asked us to contact HUDA officials. People here consume the fish and officials should clarify on the safety levels of the lake,” felt S.Q. Masood, another resident.

Wildlife experts attribute this sudden death of fish, to lack of dissolved oxygen, so vital for survival of fish. Weather conditions, especially during rainy season and cloudy days also lead to such type of problems, they say.

Decay process

A bit of rain leads to growth of plankton (microscopic plants and algae) in lakes. Planktons produce oxygen and its lifecycle is short-lived.

They die and again grow and this decay process of organic material increases consumption of oxygen, they explain.

“More organic material lead to less dissolved oxygen and without oxygen fish die,” World Wildlife Fund (WWF) State Director for Farida Tampal said.

Officials to visit site

“Cloudy conditions, rain and release of waste from naalas into the lake lead to increased consumption of oxygen. This depletion of oxygen leaves fish with less oxygen to survive. In such instances, large fish die first because they naturally need more oxygen. We will visit the place and collect water samples,” said HUDA Executive Engineer (lakes) Zafrullah Khan.

Fish Kills can be prevented using Nualgi.

Fish Kill in Indira Park, Hyderabad


HYDERABAD: Morning walkers at Indira Park witnessed an unusual sight very recently. The pond meant for boating inside the park had dozens of dead fish floating about in the mossy water surface.

“The fish were removed and piled up on the edge of the pond. It was a pitiable sight,” laments S. Rajagopal Goud, a retired teaching professional who frequents the park.

Certainly the boating pond is no Miralam Tank and no alarm was caused about fish dying in there. Even now, a careful observer can spot an occasional carcass of fish floating about, hardly visible in the filthy water.


Fish kill in ponds, lakes and rivers can be prevented easily using Nualgi.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Algae for various uses

Interesting photos of harvest of Algae at

CCC Aquaculture Technology Program, 301 College Circle, Morehead City, NC 28557


Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Hawaii May Take Lead in Algae Energy Research

Hawaii May Take Lead in Algae Energy Research

It seems Hawaii may be the next algae “hot spot” in the United States. According to an article in Sunday's Honolulu Advertiser, “Hawaii has a longstanding tradition of agricultural research. In plantation days, we were clever enough to get 25 percent to 50 percent of our power from bagasse, or sugarcane fiber, and we have a history of generating power from plants. Growing algae now is back to the future.”

What they have been able to achieve is quite impressive but the technology is still in its infancy there, even with some of the world's top research teams. Hawaii currently has no field sites and no processing plants capable of turning algae into biodiesel. Because of this, they have no commercial algae biodiesel, and this does not look as though it will change soon.

It should be mentioned that Hawaii is not without its share of projects that did not come to fruition or were utter failures. For instance, “last summer, Blue Earth planned to build a processing plant to make biodiesel from algae grown on nearby A&B land. MECO was going to burn that fuel in its Ma'alaea generating plant and pass CO2waste back to A&B as fertilizer to grow more algae. But Blue Earth and MECO are in a contract dispute and nothing is happening.”

There is nothing to say this plant will not someday be generating fuel. However, it does not currently do so. It would seem, though, that Hawaii has a vested interest in using algae for more complex operations such as high-protein fish and cattle feed. The state is confident algae will play a huge role in its under-construction energy ecosystem.

They seem more dedicated to finding new answers to old problems than the rest of the United States and it would seem they are on a great path to doing so very soon.
However, it would seem there needs to be greater public acceptance of algae and its many uses in our world and less bureaucratic involvement keeping it from being used to its full potential. The possibilities are limitless once that happens.

This post was contributed by Holly McCarthy, who writes on the subject of the best online school [http://www.bestuniversities.com/]. She invites your feedback at hollymccarthy12 at gmail dot com.