Tuesday, December 25, 2012

Ocean Acidification and Diatoms


Ocean Acidification (Effects on Marine Plants: Phytoplankton, Diatoms) -- Summary
In conclusion, and has been found to be the case for essentially all types of marine phytoplankton, the real-world data that have been obtained to date suggest that earth's diatoms will manage just fine as the air's CO2 content continues to climb to ever-greater heights. And as diatoms serve as primary producers in numerous marine food chains, the several trophic levels above them should also be similarly benefited by the dreaded phenomenon of "ocean acidification."


Ocean Acidification and Diatoms

Another experimented conducted entailed the creation of an equilibrium of atmospheric carbon dioxide with bubbled aqueous carbon dioxide. When the carbon dioxide was made to be twice that of normal conditions, consumption increased by 27%. When the carbon dioxide was tripled, the diatoms’ consumption was 39% higher. Estimates say that such carbon dioxide consumption as that described here may in have kept atmospheric levels to 90% of what they would be otherwise since start of the industrial revolution. In yet another study, it was found that certain species of diatoms grow 20% faster when exposed to increased carbon dioxide.
This potentially positive consequence of the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is not nearly enough to outweigh the negative results of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Some algae do not, in fact, benefit from increased levels of carbon dioxide. Zooxanthellae, for example, exist symbiotically with coral reefs. If the zooxanthellae colonies grow too large, then they will be doing so at the expense of their coral homes. Some species of phytoplankton may react poorly to the increased acidity. Then we must factor in things such as coral bleaching, coastal erosion, decalcification, and the loss of biodiversity. Indeed, for every possible upside that comes from ocean acidification, it seems that there are two potentially devastating ramifications.

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Green, Glorious Green Water


Green, Glorious Green Water

A great collection of photos of Green Water from all over the world - ponds, lakes, coastal waters, etc.

62 Photos, only 2 don't have green water in them.

Monday, December 10, 2012

Nualgi Lakes

Lake Savers LLC website -

Jack Mosel's blog -

Video of use in a Lake in New York

Nualgi Lakes Fact sheet - by Clean-flo International -

Global change and the future of harmful algal blooms in the ocean


Mar Ecol Prog Ser

Vol. 470: 207–233, 2012
doi: 10.3354/meps10047
Published December 6, 2012

Global change and the future of harmful algal blooms in the ocean

Fei Xue Fu*, Avery O. Tatters, David A. Hutchins

*The University of Southern California, Department of Biological Sciences, 3616 Trousdale Parkway, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA

ABSTRACT: The frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and phytoplankton
community shifts toward toxic species have increased worldwide. Although most research has
focused on eutrophication as the cause of this trend, many other global- and regional-scale
anthropogenic influences may also play a role. Ocean acidification (high pCO2/low pH), greenhouse
warming, shifts in nutrient availability, ratios, and speciation, changing exposure to solar
irradiance, and altered salinity all have the potential to profoundly affect the growth and toxicity
of these phytoplankton. Except for ocean acidification, the effects of these individual factors on
harmful algae have been studied extensively. In this review, we summarize our understanding of
the influence of each of these single factors on the physiological properties of important marine
HAB groups. We then examine the much more limited literature on how rising CO2 together with
these other concurrent environmental changes may affect these organisms, including what is possibly
the most critical property of many species: toxin production. New work with several diatom
and dinoflagellate species suggests that ocean acidification combined with nutrient limitation or
temperature changes may dramatically increase the toxicity of some harmful groups. This observation
underscores the need for more in-depth consideration of poorly understood interactions
between multiple global change variables on HAB physiology and ecology. A key limitation of
global change experiments is that they typically span only a few algal generations, making it
difficult to predict whether they reflect likely future decadal- or century-scale trends. We conclude
by calling for thoughtfully designed experiments and observations that include adequate
consideration of complex multivariate interactive effects on the long-term responses of HABs to a
rapidly changing future marine environment.

KEY WORDS: Climate change · CO2 · Ocean acidification · Temperature · Stratification · Nutrient
limitation · HAB · Algal toxins · Phycotoxins

Saturday, December 8, 2012

Clean Hussainsagar Campaign


Hussainsagar dredging work initiated

Chief Minister also launches the ‘Clean Hussainsagar’ campaign
As part of a year-long initiative to get rid of pollutants from Hussain Sagar Lake, dredging work at the water body was initiated on Friday.


The massive exercise launched by the Chief Minister, N. Kiran Kumar Reddy, will help to scoop out sediments to the tune of 10 lakh cubic metre from the confluence points of four inlets of the lake.

The dredging of sediments at three inlets, Balkapur nala, Picket nala and Banjara nala, has started while the work on Kukaptally nala confluence point will be initiated at a later date since sediments here were found to be hazardous.


One of the major aspects of the Hussainsagar Lake and Catchment Area Improvement Project, the exercise would have the dredged out sediments dried and shifted to existing quarry pits at Jawaharnagar dump yard.

The lake, which has been polluted due to untreated sewage and industrial effluents generated in the catchment of 240 square km through the four inlets, is being restored with the assistance of Japan 

International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to the tune of Rs. 370 crore.

Apart from dredging work, the Chief Minister on Friday also launched the ‘Clean Hussainsagar’ campaign, commissioning of upgraded tertiary level 20 MLD STP at Khairatabad and the 1400 mm Balanagar sewer main.

Reuse of water

The STP has been upgraded to the tertiary level and according to HMDA officials, the treated water would be processed for ultra-filtration by membranes procured from Australia.

The water then gets disinfected of pathogenic bacteria to achieve a quality, which the officials described would be fit for reuse, for non-potable purposes.

Speaking on the occasion of the launch, the Chief Minister called for a concerted effort involving all stakeholders to clean Hussainsagar Lake.

Efforts are on to clean and restore several other smaller water bodies in the city and tough action is in store for those taking up illegal constructions alongside them, he said.

In his address, Labour Minister D. Nagender said the HMDA should not remain mute in issues that threaten the lake and cautioned senior officials of action in case they failed to take steps needed to protect the water body.

Hussainsagar - The lake that was


The lake that was

Chandana Chakrabarti Dec 8, 2012, 07.19AM IST
The Hyderabad of my childhood was so uneventful that a trip to Husainsagar was the highest form of entertainment , a memory one ruminated on for months. In the sixties, the raw beauty of a much larger lake enticed one and all. Tankbund road was narrow, pavements non-existent , and traffic so thin that a snail crossing the road would not run the risk of being run over. The lower tank bund road was a narrow dirt track lining a green expanse of paddy fields . Hotel Marriott stands where a Coca Cola bottling plant, a regular target for school excursions, stood. Connecting the upper and lower Tankbund roads were narrow stone steps on the wall of the bund. We used these steps to go Bharat Sevashram Sangha on the lower road for a community meal at Kali puja on Diwali.
For the non-adventurous , the lake was approachable from the Secunderabad Sailing Club or the Hyderabad Boat Club on the opposite end. A bus ride on the top deck of a doubledecker bus through Tankbund was enticing . Racing records were broken and set on Tankbund road.
A small kebaband-paratha shop opposite the lakeside and a restaurant at the level of water on the Tankbund road which had an open shelter as a roof-top , were favourite haunts. Bongs had their fi ll of fish from the closeby stall of the fisheries department. In the late seventies , water hyacinth aggressively claimed the lake, making it look like a vast green expanse. The battle against it was not easy and became almost a full-time research obsession with RRLabs.
Every Durga puja, on Dashami, Durga was bid farewell in the lake by half-a-dozen Bengali clubs who used Hyderabad Boat Club premises for immersion . More than faith, it was our only chance to get on an open lorry, shout, sing, dance and be boisterous. The unique sight of the army puja's amphibian truck, which moved on land and water attracted crowds and made us feel proud. Ganesh festival till the end of seventies was virtually unknown in Hyderabad. Since then with every passing year Ganesh immersion has only grown larger and more aggressive , contributing to the lead, mercury and cadmium levels of the lake, besides the silt. Bongs are, perhaps, to be blamed for showing the way.
Through the eighties and nineties, dramatic changes swept the lake's environs . Tankbund road got broadened, beautified and statuefied ! The Buddha Purnima Project got underway, the Necklace road came up, and the monolith Buddha was transported prostrate on a huge vehicle with over a hundred wheels, only to fall in the lake on its way to the rock of Gibralter , killing several people.
But there were other ugly things happening along with the beautifi cation . Patancheru industrial estate's effluents and the city's sewage began to get free access to the lake. The clear water of the lake went so turbid that Buddha's rescue was a nightmare. Stench around the lake became insufferable. Governor Kumudben Joshi as also Governor Kishan Kant would lament in personal conversation about how the stench obliterated the joy of an enticing view from their residence. Then came a time when eating the lake's fi sh could endanger one's health.
Although Husainsagar's beautifi cation has enraptured everyone, the lake has been dying a slow death. Moreover , the banks of Husainsagar has become the best destination for the lastjourney of our politicians. And who knows, the fate of Masab tank might befall Husainsagar in a few decades, and then the transition from a park to a mall will be only a matter of real estatestrategy!
Time and again, independent organisations have run extensive experiments to study the water quality of the Hussainsagar. The results, each time, have thrown up startling facts about the deteriorating condition of the city's most important water body. Excerpts from some of those studies:
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute: 1997-98

This water quality assessment was conducted by NEERI on the request of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewerage Board. The study revealed a very low, and in some locations zero, presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Hussainsagar thereby indicating the fragile lake water quality and the effect of organic pollution. The study concluded that the lake was in an advanced stage of 'Eutrophication' , which means that there was an increased plant growth in the water body. According to experts this accelerated growth is either due to natural fertilizing agents washed from the soil or dumping of chemical fertilizers. Eutrophication may also occur due to drainage of sewage, industrial wastes or detergents into a body of water.
Ecology & Environment Group, National Geophysical Research Institute: 2007-08
The paper was prepared by members of NGRI and points to the risk posed to the aquatic environment of Hussainsagar, thanks to the presence of heavy metals in the water, especially lead. Tracing the pollution 'history' of the lake, the study points out how the water body initially did absorb the pollution impact. But once its natural carrying capacity reached its limits, adverse effects of the pollution started manifesting around 1970 in the form of deteriorating water quality, fowl smell, wild growth of macrophytes and breeding of mosquitoes. By 1992, according to the paper, the lake was reduced to a cesspool.
As part of a comprehensive report on the water situation in India, 'Excreta Matters' , the centre also studied the situation of water bodies in Hyderabad. It concluded that the Hussainsagar, once a primary source of drinking water of the city, had shrunk significantly over the years and was posed with a serious threat from pollution and encroachment in this catchment area.

Friday, November 16, 2012

Climate change and global warming may be affecting N.J. public water sources


Climate change and global warming may be affecting N.J. public water sources

Renée Kiriluk-Hill/Hunterdon Democrat By Renée Kiriluk-Hill/Hunterdon Democrat 
on November 16, 2012 at 1:46 PM, updated November 16, 2012 at 1:48 PM

The Lambertville-New Hope Bridge 
LAMBERTVILLE — Climate change and global warming may be affecting our public water supply.
United Water New Jersey, which serves about 812,000 customers in the northern half of the state, detected a "large" algae bloom in a West Amwell Township reservoir for the first time and now plans to step up monitoring.
The West Amwell reservoir feeds the Lambertville public water system. Algae blooms are common in shallow reservoirs, said company spokesman Steve Goudsmith, but this was the first time a large bloom appeared in this body of water, which is in a wooded area.
In an email yesterday, Nov. 15, company director of water quality and compliance Keith Cartnick wrote that "in light of changing weather patterns and global warming considerations, we have begun discussions" with a local hydrology firm "to develop an improved reservoir monitoring plan for Lambertville, and PAC (powdered activated charcoal) treatment options are also being investigated."
Cartnick wrote that the charcoal treatment "could address both T&O (taste and odor) and potential algae toxins, should the need arise."
It is already used "successfully" at United Water's Haworth and Matchaponix facilities to control taste and odor, according to Cartnick.
Some residents have been complaining about the smell and taste for the past couple of months. One said that she has been told that the problem was caused by a potentially dangerous algae.
State Department of Environmental Protection spokesman Larry Haina said today that a review of the tests conducted by United Water confirmed an issue with taste and odor, but said it is "not a health concern."
Mayor David DelVecchio has passed the testing results on to two other experts in the field to confirm the findings, City Clerk Cindy Ege said today. "He wants to cover every base."
The residents are "international in their expertise in water quality" and are reading the reports at no charge to the city, said the mayor.
Goudsmith said that natural seasonal "turnover" of cold and warm water at the reservoir may have also contributed to the taste and odor issue. He said the turnover happens when surface water cools and sinks to the bottom, pushing what is now warmer water at the bottom to the surface. But there was "certainly an algae bloom," he said.
Going forward, United Water "wants to be pro-active" and will increase "monitoring for the algae and early stage treatment in the reservoir."
He said that water quality tests show that the public's water "continues to meet, or surpasses" regulations.
Lambertville resident Kara Hughes said that she started complaining about a musty odor and taste in the city's public water weeks ago, and in an email from United Water it appeared that several complaints daily started in mid-October.
Hughes has lived in the city for 14 years and now has two young children. She said the strength of the odor fluctuated, but was frequently offensive enough that she washed her children's clothes elsewhere and started relying on bottled water.
"It's not sulfur. It's like a really strong, musty basement," she said. "Our laundry and hair was reeking of swamp!"
Last week she noticed improvement, saying it had "a bouquet of chlorine on top of it."

Hughes worried today about the safety of her family's drinking water over time.
United Water Lambertville serves nearly 4,000 people in the city and portions of West Amwell.

Monday, November 12, 2012

Diatomaceous Earth 101


Diatomaceous Earth 101


Diatomaceous Earth is a naturally occurring element which is created from ancient fossilized sea shells from unicellular organisms called Diatoms. It is also know as sea shell flour and has many uses for humans, pets and in and around our house. The list of incredible results and powerful testimonies keeps growing. Originally used primarily for pool filters as a natural way to treat pools and also as an organic pesticide there has been a growing movement to the internal use for both humans and pets. Before we get into all the health benefits and the amazing results people are experiencing let's first try to understand what this substance is and than its many uses and benefits.

Let's start with some basics about Diatomaceous Earth (DE). There are two kinds DE; pool filter grade and food grade. Pool filter grade is treated differently and is more caustic to humans and animals and should only be used with a breathing mask when handling. Food grade can be consumed by both humans and animals to assist with creating a healthy digestive tract environment, a parasite and colon cleanse. It can also be used externally for a pest control in and around the house as it is widely used for farm animals and crops. Even though it is said to be OK to breath in food grade DE it is always wise to be safe and use a breathing mask when heavily dusting with it. We will focus only on the uses and benefits of Food grade DE.

What is it? Diatomaceous earth also known as diatomite or kieselgur, is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 1 micron to more than 1 millimeter, but typically 10 to 200 microns. This powder has an abrasive feel, similar to pumice powder, and is very light, due to its high porosity. The typical chemical composition of oven dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica, with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay minerals) and 0.5 to 2% iron oxide.

Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. It is used as a filtration aid, as a mild abrasive, as a mechanical insecticide, as an absorbent for liquids, as cat litter, as an activator in blood clotting studies, and as a component of dynamite. As it is also heat-resistant, it can be used as a thermal insulator. Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica remains of dead diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. The fossil remains consist of a pair of symmetrical shells or frustules.

What are Diatoms? Unicellular organisms with a hard silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpting and are found in fresh and saltwater. When aquatic diatoms die they drop to the bottom, and the shells, not being subject to decay and eventually form the material known as diatomaceous earth. When it occurs in a more compact form as a soft, chalky, light-weight rock, it is called diatomite. Deposits of diatomaceous material, formed underwater in past geologic time and now exposed above water, are found in all parts of the world, http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/diatom.aspx. Diatomaceous earth is mined and ground forming shell flour forming the base of our product.

Diatom facts: Diatoms are unique forms of algae that grow a silica shell that is preserved in underwater sediments after they die.
• Diatoms photosynthesize. They are categorized as either protists or chromists.
• They provide a significant amount of the world's oxygen supply (some say 35%).
• There are over a hundred thousand species identified.
• Diatoms live anywhere there is water and light, including lakes, streams, estuaries, oceans, puddles and wet rocks or soil.
• That brown scum you see on the rocks in the stream is probably diatoms.
• Diatomaceous earth is sometimes used in gardening as a pest control

What are the benefits of using DE? When micro algae dies leaving behind the hard shell of what is called the Diatom it works in two primary ways. First due to the hard shell with jagged edges when applied topically it strips off the waxy outer layer of the insect or bug and it dehydrates and dies. It also works the same way on intestinal parasites inside the body. It is also said to do the same to molds and fungus both internal and external. The second major benefit is the Silica and trace minerals that when ingested feed our bodies what it lacks from a depleted food supply. Each of our cells consists mostly of silica, which when not nourished from our food and water, begins to form an unhealthy environment where disease and poor health conditions rise.

In a sense picture a helium balloon when filled is firm and light. Over time it looses its helium and it sags and becomes heavier eventually dropping to the ground looking like a shriveled up prune. The same holds true to our bodies in many ways, which over time if not feed the proper nutrients and minerals shrivels up and dies. The more of our cells that lose silica the less energy and more pain we feel, like a feeling of heaviness. Many of our aliments are due to a deprived silica and mineral environment. Diatomaceous earth is 85% silica when taken internally mixed in a drink or food in a very short period of time gives our cells the silica they are so deprived of. The list of ailments from the many testimonies DE has helped or alleviated is amazing.

People are reporting tremendous results from the use of taking DE. The list is long but here is a snapshot of what people are saying; increased energy, arthritic pain gone, lowered blood pressure, hair and skin improved, psoriasis gone, lowered cholesterol, eyesight improved, cleansing digestive tract of parasites, the best colon cleanse on the market and the list goes on. Also for your pet it is a great de-wormer and flea and tic killer.

I was first introduced to DE as my wife and I was looking for a natural solution to a flea infestation we had on our dog and in our house. We located some and applied it on our dog, all over our house and in our yard. Here is the amazing thing! The next day all the flea bites stopped. In one day our flea infestation was solved without bombing the house with chemicals.

Then my wife said she read in her search that it was also good for getting rid of intestinal parasites which I knew I had. I did some research until I felt comfortable enough to try it. I kept a journal for my first 30 days which is posted on my website. After drinking it in a glass of water every day I started calling it the dirt. In short, after it cleaned my digestive tract and colon of parasites and toxins my energy sky rocketed and then the pain in my shoulders and hands went away. I now have no pain in my body. After my experience I felt like I needed to let everyone know about the "Dirt"

If you are consider taking Diatomaceous Earth or any product based off of DE you should consult your physician first, even though they may have limited knowledge of this substance. DE has not been evaluated by the FDA or any other agency. DE has not been widely used by humans, but those that have taken it love it and the results they have experienced. It is also recommended to wear a breathing mask whenever creating dust from fumigating or dusting your garden or lawn with DE.

For more information on Diatomaceous Earth and its uses or if you would like to order some go to my website. http://www.diatomaceousearthplus.com. 

Bob Cerami

Bob Cerami is an entrepreneur and author who is always looking for good opportunities and ways to help people live and feel better. He is the author of an E-Book, the 20 Things You Need to Know before you buy a home, a guide and resource for people thinking of buying a home. Also, Bob has written a few books, plus many articles and stories, a TV reality show amongst other things for different interests. His particular interest lies in training others how to and writing about many topics.

Bob is a consultant to businesses, ministers and sales people. Bob serves as a home buying counselor and mortgage consultant in the real estate industry. He has owned a few businesses, served as a senior pastor for an extended time and now works in the mortgage industry aside from consulting.

Bob Cerami

Thursday, November 1, 2012

The technology to tackle greenhouse gas emissions now exists. Are we brave enough to use it?


The technology to tackle greenhouse gas emissions now exists. Are we brave enough to use it?

A leading thinker of the green movement argues that negative emission technology has the potential to be revolutionary - if we only it's deployed sensibly

Geoengineering has been advocated as a solution to climate chaos. Mirrors in space to reflect sunlight, human induced algal blooms to absorb carbon, and cloud seeding have all been proposed as ways to manage an impending climate crisis.
Many of these options, however, attempt to deal with the effects of climate change, not its causes. Their benefits are fleeting, they depend on continuous programmes of intervention and they have unacceptable side-effects at local and regional levels. They are unlikely to gain political support and will not succeed.

Friday, October 19, 2012

Geoengineering Experiment Creates Massive Algae Bloom in Pacific Ocean


Rogue Geoengineering Experiment Creates Massive Algae Bloom in Pacific Ocean

by , 10/17/12

The Guardian is reporting that a July dump of 100 tonnes of iron sulphate in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of British Columbia, Canada, by California businessman Russ George has fueled a plankton bloom as large as 10,000 square kilometers. The dump is part of a rogue geoengineering experiment that is intended to demonstrate that ocean fertilization using iron can draw carbon from the atmosphere and sequester it in the ocean long-term to help combat climate change. But environmentalists have called George’s algae bloom experiment a “blatant violation of two international resolutions.”


Thursday, October 18, 2012

Northernmost Lake Reappears Due to Warming


Northernmost Lake Reappears Due to Warming

Algae in Greenland lake bouncing back after deep freeze, study finds.

Kate Andries
Published October 17, 2012
The world's northernmost lake, situated near the coast ofGreenland (map), is coming back to life.
Populations of microscopic algae, called diatoms, have been absent from the lake Kaffeklubben Sø for over 2,000 years. But a new study has found that the diatoms are returning, thanks to global warming.
"It's a pure climate change story," said study co-author Bianca Perren, a paleoecologist at the University of Franche-Comté in Besançon, France, who specializes in Arctic environmental change (see pictures).
Diatoms were once abundant in Kaffeklubben Sø, which was formed about 3,500 years ago after glacial retreats created numerous small lakes on the coastal plain.
As surrounding temperatures cooled, diatom populations decreased until they vanished some 2,400 years ago, Perren explained.
"Until about 1920, [the lake] was basically in a deep freeze," she said.
Ice completely covered its surface, cutting off any sunlight that had previously penetrated into the water. This lack of light, along with dropping temperatures, killed off the organisms beneath the surface.
Strong Evidence for Climate Change
Scientists began seeing a growth in the number of diatoms in the lake between 1960 and 1970 as summer temperatures began gradually increasing—varying by less than a degree throughout the years. By 1980, the diatom population had exploded.
A layer of ice three-to-six feet thick (one-to-two meters thick) covers the lake year-round, though the rising summer temperatures—now averaging around 34 degrees Fahrenheit (1.6 degrees Celsius)—cause some of the ice to melt, especially around the shore.
Temperaturewise, several degrees Celsius in northern Greenland makes a critical difference, said Perren. The warmer summer temperatures and ice meltage allow enough light into the lake so that life can grow.
A large portion of the study sought to determine if the surge in diatom population was caused in part by nitrogen pollution, which can cause algae to bloom. But no evidence of pollution—nitrogen or otherwise—was found in Kaffeklubben Sø, suggesting that the current rise in diatom population is due to climate change alone. (Take a global warming quiz.)
Jack Williams, director of the Center for Climatic Research at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, agreed, noting that the Kaffeklubben Sø study made a strong argument that this is a climate-driven change rather than a nutrient-driven change.
The current diatom population in Kaffeklubben Sø is the highest in recent memory, according to the study authors.
"We certainly expected to see some sort of biological growth," added study co-author Colin Cooke, a geoscientist at Yale University, added. "I didn't expect to see such a large response."
The northernmost lake study appears in the November issue of Geology Journal.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Gloom over 'anaemic' rivers


Gloom over 'anaemic' rivers

Authorities have all but abandoned improving the health of big areas of the Swan and Canning rivers in the short term, according to a report that shows the system's condition is anaemic.
The Swan River Trust's annual report painted a bleak picture of the waterway after a year in which it was hit with mass fish kills and several toxic algal blooms.
According to the trust's own monitoring, nitrogen levels were too high at almost half of its stations for the fourth year in a row, while phosphorous levels exceeded benchmarks at 20 per cent of sites.
The report showed the amount of chlorophyll-a - a green pigment that indicates algal growth - was far too high everywhere and had been getting worse since 2008.
And dissolved oxygen levels, which were propped up by oxygen plants as a "last line of defence", were too low in each river area except its lower reaches, which were most affected by seawater.
Crucially, the trust said conditions were not expected to improve in many areas and according to several criteria "in the foreseeable future".
This was because of the system's high embedded nutrient level and Perth's lack of winter rain, which reduced the rivers' ability to flush themselves out.
The trust reported six sewage discharges into the rivers last year, 11 industrial discharges and 22 oil slicks or spills.
A spokeswoman for Environment Minister Bill Marmion said the trust had failed to meet its own benchmarks.
"The trust and its partners deliver many positive initiatives that improve water quality and environmental condition in priority catchment areas," she said.
Greens MP Alison Xamon said the trust's report revealed a grim picture of the health of the rivers and legislative action was urgently needed to clean the system.
Shadow environment minister Sally Talbot said the rivers would not recover until water-soluble fertilisers were banned in the catchment."


Ms Talbot has missed the point, all fertilizers HAVE to be water soluble. 
All living organisms (bacteria to humans) are about 70% water and can only consume water soluble material. Therefore fertilizer, food and sewage is always water soluble. 

The headline hits the mark, perhaps unintentionally. 
The problem with polluted rivers and lakes is lack of IRON and not excess nutrients. 
Nualgi provides iron on a silica base. 

Saturday, September 29, 2012

NASA hypes Arctic algal blooms as “unprecedented” but they are common


NASA hypes Arctic algal blooms as “unprecedented” but they are common

by  on Sep. 29, 2012, under Climate changeGeneral Science
The NASA headline reads: “NASA Discovers Unprecedented Blooms of Ocean Plant Life.” Within the article we find:
“Scientists have made a biological discovery in Arctic Ocean waters as dramatic and unexpected as finding a rainforest in the middle of a desert. A NASA-sponsored expedition punched through three-foot thick sea ice to find waters richer in microscopic marine plants, essential to all sea life, than any other ocean region on Earth. The finding reveals a new consequence of the Arctic’s warming climate and provides an important clue to understanding the impacts of a changing climate and environment on the Arctic Ocean and its ecology.”
“If someone had asked me before the expedition whether we would see under-ice blooms, I would have told them it was impossible,” said Kevin Arrigo of Stanford University in Stanford, Calif., leader of the ICESCAPE mission and lead author of the new study. “This discovery was a complete surprise.” (See full article here)
Perhaps these NASA scientists should research the scientific literature more carefully. If they did, they might have discovered that Arctic algal blooms are not “unprecedented” or even unusual.
For instance, we have this paper from 1996 reporting on research in 1993:
Occurrence of an algal bloom under Arctic pack ice” by R. Gradinger, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 131.
“Summer melting of sea ice leads to the formation of under-ice melt ponds in Arctic seas. The biological characteristics of such a pond were studied in summer 1993. The chlorophyte Pyramimonas sp. (Prasinophyceae) formed a unialgal bloom with cell densities of 19.1 thousand cell per ml and a pigment concentration of 29.6 mg per cubic meter. A comparison with ice core data revealed differences in algal biomass and community structure. Physical data indicate that under-ice ponds are a common feature in the Arctic Ocean. Thus, communities within under-ice ponds, which have not been included in production estimates, may significantly contribute to the Arctic marine food web.”
I wonder if the Arizona Daily Star will, in a few days, report NASA’s “unprecedented” discovery just as the Star uncritically reported the last NASA “unprecedented” claim:Greenland “melting” and media hype.

Marine plants can flee to avoid predators, researchers say

Marine plants can flee to avoid predators, researchers say

Scientists at the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography have made the first observation of a predator avoidance behavior by a species of phytoplankton, a microscopic marine plant. Susanne Menden-Deuer, associate professor of oceanography, and doctoral student Elizabeth Harvey made the unexpected observation while studying the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2012-09-marine-predators.html#jCp

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Study finds that ocean acidification is accelerated in nutrient-rich areas


Study finds that ocean acidification is accelerated in nutrient-rich areas

Marine resources, coastal economies put at risk

September 24, 2012
Carbon dioxide released from decaying algal blooms, combined with ongoing increases in atmospheric carbon emissions, leads to increased levels of ocean acidification, and places additional stress on marine resources and the coastal economies that depend on them, according to a new study published today.
Ocean acidification occurs when the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the breakdown of organic matter, which then causes a chemical reaction to make it more acidic. Species as diverse as scallops and corals are vulnerable to ocean acidification, which can affect the growth of their shells and skeletons.
Research by NOAA's William G. Sunda and Wei-jun Cai of the University of Georgia points to the process of eutrophication - the production of excess algae from increased nutrients, such as, nitrogen and phosphorus -- as a large, often overlooked source of CO2 in coastal waters. When combined with increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, the release of CO2 from decaying organic matter is accelerating the acidification of coastal seawater.

Friday, August 10, 2012

Lake Savers - "We’ve eliminated the ‘boom-bust’ diatomic cycle"

Lake Savers LLC, USA have been using Nualgi for past 1 year and posted this on their website.

Diatoms are one of the reasons life emerged from the swamp. Millions of years ago when the oceans subsided, land masses emerged, and runoff started to carry granite and silica into the oceans, a microscopic life-form emerged that scientists consider to be a fundamental building block of life itself – the diatom. 
Diatoms are microscopic food power cells (phytoplankton) that convert carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other nutrients into dissolved oxygen and oxygen rich organic compounds and phytoplankton which result in a healthy ecosystem and ultimately a thriving fish population. They play a dynamic role in nutrient conversion and regulation of ecosystems. [Read more about Diatoms]
The problem is that they are boom-and-bust in nature. When diatom population is high, nutrients are converted to fish. When diatom population is low, nitrogen that would normally be converted to dissolved oxygen, phytoplankton, and zooplankton and released as CO2 gas in the atmosphere is instead utilized by explosive weed growth and toxic blue-green algae (cyanotoxin). Diatom diminishment typically happens in mid-summer. The “bust” happens when the supply of silica, iron and other micronutrients fail. Diatoms need all these inputs.
We’ve eliminated the ‘boom-bust’ diatomic cycle.
As part of our ongoing Biological Acceleration research and technology we’re deploying a silica based micro-nutrient formulation developed for Lake Savers by Nualgi Nanotechnology that’s proven to stimulate, regulate, and sustain continual diatom growth. One year after initial treatment in one of our highly distressed urban-environment freshwater bodies we’re seeing the development of higher order complex siliceous diatom species that are indicative of extremely high water quality environments (oligotrophic).
Our results are showing a clear and rapid transformation of a eutrophic water body to an oligotrophic status. For this reason, we’ve moved our diatomic regeneration technology from emergent…to current!

Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Green-India Product Showcase: Nualgi


Green-India Product Showcase: Nualgi

A Novel Solution for Waste Water Treatment

Science fiction writer Arthur C Clarke famously said: “any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Nualgi  (pronounced as new-algae) is one such solution to the problem of waste water treatment.

All you have to do is just add Nualgi powder to the water body (lake, pond, etc.), no matter how polluted, and it will get to work within minutes. You can start to see the change within a matter of hours and after a few weeks, the water will be fit for use.

The table below describes how Nualgi is helpful in different contexts. More details follow the table.


Ponds, lakes, estuaries, back waters, rivers, even oceans

·         Discharge of untreated sewage into water bodies is a huge problem across India.
·         Causes formation of blue-green algaethat deplete dissolved oxygen (DO) and kill fish.
·         Pollution causes fishermen lose their livelihood and go elsewhere to find fish.
·         Reviving a large water body using conventional means requires massive amounts of energy.
·         Overfishing is another serious problem in coastal areas where fish stocks are depleted to unacceptably low levels.

·         Application of Nualgi powder in the water body causes growth of microscopic water plants that consume organic matter and release oxygen thus increasing dissolved oxygen.
·         Increase in DO level causes beneficial bacteria to bloom and foul smell, if any,stops within hours.
·         Within a few weeks, blue green algae disappears and fish and other aquatic life grows in a clean environment.
·         Nualgi needs to be applied periodicallyto maintain the DO level and fish yield.

Sewage treatment
·         Consumes scarce electricity resource that could be used by thousands of homes.
·         When electricity is unavailable diesel pumps are used causing pollution and increasing cost of treatment.

·         Nualgi application in sewage treatment plants reduces energy consumption.
·         Cost of Nualgi applied to raise DO level is less than cost of electricity consumed.
·         Nualgi can also treat sewage all by itself at places electricity is unavailable or expensive.

How does it work?
Nualgi powder contains micro nutrients on a nano silica base which triggers the growth of a particular type of phytoplankton called diatoms. Since only diatoms require silica they consume it and grow rapidly. Nualgi powder is taken in fine net bag and this is shaken in the water or the powder can be dissolved in a few litres of water and then added to water body. Nualgi spreads out into the entire lake and becomes available for consumption by the diatoms and these diatoms consume the organic wastes and produce oxygen. Increase of DO level in water facilitates the growth of aquatic species like aerobic bacteria, zooplankton, fishes etc. The diatoms are consumed by zooplanktons that in turn are food for fishes.

Is it a scientifically proven solution?
Nualgi is in use regular since 2005 and many tons have been used till date in aquaculture ponds and lakes. The contents of Nualgi as similar to those in f/2 media used in shrimp hatcheries to culture diatoms, however the use of Nano Silica is the new feature. Nano silica improves the delivery of micro nutrients to diatoms in a remarkable manner. Nano particles are available for consumption by the smallest diatoms, silica keeps the metals stable in water and it spreads out in a large water body so little mixing is necessary.
  • peer-reviewed paper  published in a scientific journal states that use of Nualgi "was found to significantly boost growth in [two diatom] species." Key finding was that Nualgi is about twice as good as conventional f/2 media.
  • A recent article in Nature (India) calls Nualgi, a ready-mix solution to global warming  due to its carbon sequestration potential.
  • Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) webpage on Nualgi Technology 
What is the dosage and how often does it need to be applied?
After Nualgi application the growth of diatoms is almost immediate - starting within minutes. Within a few hours, DO increase is measurable. Diatom bloom continues as long as the nutrient lasts.

The normal dosage is one kilogram in one surface acre of pond once a week. The dosage can be increased or decreased depending on the nutrient level, DO level, number of fish, etc. The increase in fish weight due to the consumption of the diatoms would be at least 10 kilogram. Thus Nualgi is very economical.

For sewage treatment the dosage is one kilogram per million litres of sewage. 1 kg of Nualgi causes bloom of at least 100 kilogram of Diatoms and these give at least 100 kilogram of oxygen.

What are the other applications of Nualgi apart from water bodies?
Another version of Nualgi is used as a Foliar Spray in agriculture  and horticulture. The nano silica with micro nutrients are easily absorbed by plants through the leaves. Silica improves the health of plants and improves their pest resistance. The Micronutrients prevent nutrient deficiencies.  

Can you name some of the customers ?
Karnataka Fisheries, Ashok Leyland Ltd, JSW Steels Ltd, etc., are some of the customers.

Can I become a distributor / retailer?
The advertiser would like to appoint distributors and retailers all over the world.

Whom do I contact for more information?
MV Bhaskar
Kadambari Consultants Pvt Ltd. Hyderabad. India.
Email - nualgi@gmail.com ;  Cell - 92465 08213 ; www.nualgi.com/new