Friday, March 30, 2012

Iron input and the export and burial of biogenic silica (opal produced from diatoms)

Input of Iron Linked to Biological Productivity in Ancient Pacific

"By closely examining the sedimentary record, Murray and his
colleagues have established a clear relationship between plant
plankton (diatoms) and the input of iron, exactly as Martin


"By examining the paleo-oceanographic record of iron input and the
deposition of diatoms, Murray and his colleagues found that the
ancient system is highly consistent with what occurs in the oceans


"The new publication provides an important sedimentary record from the
high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,
and shows strong links between iron input and the export and burial of
biogenic silica (opal produced from diatoms) over the past million

The full paper is available at -

Links between iron input and opal deposition in the Pleistocene equatorial Pacific Ocean

Richard W. Murray, Margaret Leinen & Christopher W. Knowlton
Nature Geoscience 5, 270–274 (2012) doi:10.1038/ngeo1422
Published online 11 March 2012

Increases in overall marine primary productivity and export production in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions of the ocean have, particularly during dry and dusty glacial periods, been hypothesized to be linked to the enhanced delivery of iron1. In the modern ocean, iron availability limits production in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions, and may be important in lower-nutrient settings as well2. Here, we assess the relationship between productivity and iron in sedimentary records from the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the equatorial Pacific Ocean over the past million years. We find strong links between iron input, the export and burial of biogenic silica (opal) and total export production. Our data demonstrate that iron accumulation was more closely tied to the accumulation of opal than any other biogenic component, with high iron input associated with substantially increased opal sedimentation. The strong links between iron and opal accumulation over the past one million years are in agreement with the modern biogeochemical behaviour of iron and silica, and the response of the diatom community to their mutual availablity3, 4. Our data support earlier suggestions1 of a biological response to iron delivery over geologic timescales.

This paper clearly mentions Diatoms as the phytoplankton that
sequester more carbon than other phytoplankton.

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

More algae, more problems
March 28, 2012 at 10:20am

More algae, more problems
By Jeremy Moule

Our mild winter could mean a spring and summer where algae blooms are a bigger problem than usual in Lake Ontario and other local waterways.

Last night, Color Brighton Green held a presentation on local water quality issues. Charles Knauf, the department's chief water quality analyst, told the crowd that algae tends to be worse in years where there are no big winter storms to disrupt algae growth.

"I got called out on two algae blooms already, and it's not even April," Knauf said. Both involved inland water bodies.

Traditionally, excessive algae are attributed to nutrient runoff from lawns and fields. However, the mild winter - Lake Ontario, and the Great Lakes in general, barely froze during it - has given algae growth a head start.

In general, algae growth can cause water quality problems, and summertime algae are a particular problem for Monroe County's public beaches. Algae clumps can be breeding grounds for bacteria, and high pathogen counts can lead to beach closings. Algae can also cloud up the water; clarity is also a major factor in whether a beach stays open.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Lake Erie Algal Bloom on March 21, 2012

After a nearly ice-free winter, Lake Erie was filled with swirls of suspended sediment and algae on the first day of spring 2012. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image at 16:25 a.m. Central Daylight Time on March 21, 2012.
Muddy, tan-colored water along the shoreline reveals sediment that has washed out of the rivers and streams that feed the lake. Milky green, light blue, and white shades may also be sediment-rich waters. As the shallowest of the Great Lakes, Erie’s bottom can be stirred up by strong spring winds and the currents they generate. The lake bottom is rich in quartz sand and silt, as well as calcium carbonate (chalk) from limestone.
Warm temperatures this winter meant more rainfall than snow, and more immediate runoff from streams. River flow with sediment was much higher than average for much of the winter, according to NOAA oceanographer Richard Stumpf.
Some patches of green in the water are algae and other forms of phytoplankton. Air temperatures have been well above normal in the region for most of the winter, and particularly in the past week. Since the lake has been mostly clear of ice, algae and other phytoplankton have been blooming for several weeks. By mid-March, water temperatures in Lake Erie were in the upper 30s (Fahrenheit). “Even when ice covered, Lake Erie can get strong winter algal blooms,” wrote Stumpf.

Related reports

Monday, March 26, 2012

Omega-3 Fat Is Actually a Vitamin


Omega-3 Fat Is Actually a Vitamin

In the 1920s, one of the several omega-3 fats was discovered. The researchers determined that it is essential for health and met the scientific criteria to be called a vitamin. Appropriately, this fat was named “vitamin F.” Yet you probably haven’t heard of vitamin F. Why not? You can rule out omega-3’s fatty nature as the reason it lacks “vitamin status,” because there are other fat-based vitamins: vitamins A, D, E, and K. At the time of the vitamin F discovery, vitamin E also had just been discovered. Because of the scientific excitement over the newly discovered vitamin E, vitamin F was ignored and disappeared into oblivion (until the last decade). Although research on omega-3 fats has exploded, the name vitamin F never resurfaced. It’s too bad that the vitamin F nomenclature did not stick. That term alone would emphasize how essential these fats are to our body. As with vitamins, our body cannnot make these fats (or enough of them), so they are required in our diet.


About The Author

Dr. Leroy Rebello is a well established and internationally qualified anti-aging consultant and cosmetologist from Mumbai and a director in Eternesse - the best skin clinic in Mumbai. He lectures in reputed Institutions such as AIIMS, JIPMER and other Medical Colleges around India. With over 10 Research Papers published in Indexed Journals, Dr. Rebello is continuously researching and developing new treatments and cures.

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Nualgi Videos

Discussion about Nualgi by Mr John Tucci of Lake Savers LLC and Mr Bruce Wahlstrom of Weeders Digest, USA

Nualgi in a lake in New York

Aquaculture video
Please note the color of the water - a light brown, since Diatoms are brown.

TEDx Vellamal

The Diatom Story - 20 minutes in two parts


Aquatic Food Chain

Nualgi Foliar Spray for Agriculture video -

Saturday, March 3, 2012

O2 Dropping Faster than CO2 Rising

Implications for Climate Change Policies

New research shows oxygen depletion in the atmosphere accelerating since 2003, coinciding with the biofuels boom; climate policies that focus exclusively on carbon sequestration could be disastrous for all oxygen-breathing organisms including humans Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

"First, O2 is there principally because of carbon storage time,its rate of drop currently is ~10 ppm, but it could well swing further downwards."

CO2 increase is just 1.8 ppm per annum.

Therefore reducing the decline in O2 by 50% to 5 ppm per annum using photosynthesis will stop the increase in CO2 level of atmosphere.