Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Rivalry - is derived from River

Water has always been both blessings and a source of conflict.
There are biblical accounts of fights over water.

Moreover the English word “rivalry” derived from Latin’s “rival” basically means “one using the same river as another”.

John F. Kennedy once said whosoever solves the water problem should receive two Noble Prizes—one for science and one for peace. Kennedy’s words still ring true today.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Mint ePaper 22.04.2009

NUALGI NANOBIOTECH - A new way to clean up rivers, lakes

How would you like the idea of cleaning a dirty lake or a river for a nominal price and in an eco-friendly way?
Bangalore-based NuAlgi Nanobiotech has devised a way to treat sewage and effluents through a patented product, called NuAlgi, which not only cleans a polluted water body without affecting its ecology, but also adds nutrients to it, increasing the food content for fish.

NuAlgi, which can be used to clean a pond, a lake or a river, is available in powder form which needs to be dissolved in water in a container before draining into the water body. Chief executive T. Sampath Kumar recommends using 1-2kg of NuAlgi per 4 million litres of water. A 1kg pack of NuAlgi is priced at Rs275.

Within 15 minutes of dissolving NuAlgi in the water, diatom algae are released. These growing algae absorb nutrients and carbon dioxide from the water and produce oxygen by photosynthesis. The oxygen released helps aerobic bacteria break down the organics and convert the pollutants to base constituents, all this minus the stink that anaerobic decomposition generates. The diatoms are eaten by zooplanktons that are, in turn, consumed by fish. The ecosystem of the water body is maintained and observed by the presence of healthy fish, which are fit for human consumption.

“With the use of NuAlgi, all polluted lakes and rivers can be restored without harming the water life,” says Kumar, who invented NuAlgi over eight years, from 1996 to 2004, and has since been marketing it mainly to fishermen in and around Bangalore.

Besides cleaning water bodies, the product also has several other uses. NuAlgi can be used for growing phytoplankton in oceans to absorb carbon dioxide and reduce the greenhouse effect, thereby aiding in solving the global warming problem.

It can also be used for preventing the growth of toxic algae species called red tides in the oceans. It can be used for generating plankton and live food in aquaculture ponds which can boost the growth of prawns and fish.

The firm is currently selling the product for aquaculture in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, and the product is nationally marketed by Secunderabad-based Kadambari Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

The relatively little-known firm has so far treated at least 100 lakes. In Bangalore, it has treated sewage laden lakes such as the Madivala lake, Ulsoor lake and Puttenahalli lake. Some of its clients include Cochin Sea Foods, Mysore Breweries Ltd and Ashok Leyland Ltd.

Kumar says NuAlgi is a fast and economical alternative to the conventional effluent treatment plants in treating sewage and other organic wastes.

However, the qualified chartered accountant, who is now working on applications of using NuAlgi to produce biodiesel and ways to mitigate global warming rues the lack of awareness about the product. The reluctance of people to take up environmental issues has been a severe roadblock in the propagation of the product. “We are very successful in clearing ponds, though not as successful commercially. Nobody wants to clean up water bodies. People don’t care.” “I can clean up the whole of Yamuna in 15-20 days,” he claims.

“This kind of play needs government assistance. Lakes, rivers, ponds are a public property in India and no private firm or body or firm will take up their maintenance or cleaning up,” said Rajesh Srivathsa, managing partner, Ojas Venture Partners.

NuAlgi Nanobiotech, which is breaking even, employs eight people, and its immediate future plans include marketing the product more aggressively and raise funds. Kumar says they are in talks with venture capital funds but refused to divulge how much he plans to raise.


Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Across America, Waters In Crisis

Report: Across America, Waters In Crisis
April 14, 2009

How the Supreme Court Has Broken the Clean Water Act and Why Congress Must Fix It

Washington — For decades, the Clean Water Act has broadly protected America's lakes, rivers, streams, and drinking water sources from unregulated pollution and destruction, rescuing them from the dire straits they were in during the late 1960s and early 1970s. But because of a concerted effort by polluters and developers, and muddied rulings from the U.S. Supreme Court, up to 60 percent (at least 15,000 important waters) have lost these vital protections and countless other waters (including more than 50 percent of our streams and 20 million acres of wetlands) are at risk of losing protections.

Today, Natural Resources Defense Council, Clean Water Action, Earthjustice, Environment America, National Wildlife Federation, Sierra Club, and Southern Environmental Law Center are releasing a new report entitled Courting Disaster: How the Supreme Court Has Broken the Clean Water Act and Why Congress Must Fix It, which details the threats to America's waters and highlights the urgent need for Congress to act immediately and restore full Clean Water Act protections to our waters.

Supreme Court decisions in 2001 and 2006, and subsequent agency policies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers put in place in 2003 and 2007, shattered the fundamental framework of the Clean Water Act. Today, many important waters — large and small — are being stripped of critical protections against pollution and destruction. These waters not only serve as valuable wildlife habitat, store flood water, return water to aquifers, and filter pollutants, but they also provide some or all of the supply for drinking water systems serving roughly 111 million Americans. The floodgates are now open for polluters to use the chaotic legal state to thwart enforcement and clean up efforts, and actively pollute the waters where we fish, swim, boat, and drink.

Courting Disaster details more than 30 cases which demonstrate that without immediate action in Congress, a generation of progress in cleaning up our nation's waters may be lost. We cannot afford to return to the days of dirty water. These telling examples include numerous instances where:

an administrative agency (EPA or Corps) limited legal protection for a given water body, ruling that it is no longer protected by the Clean Water Act;
a court made a determination undercutting Clean Water Act protections for a water body;
as a defense in an enforcement action, an alleged polluter raised the issue of whether the water they discharged into is a protected water;
the Corps of Engineers originally determined a water not be protected, forcing EPA to step in to overrule the Corps and protect the water body; and
a discharger with a permit argued it could pollute waters without federal safeguards in the future.

"Across the nation, polluters are being allowed to dump into our waterways, including countless drinking water sources," said Jon Devine, Senior Attorney for NRDC. "Congress can and must fix the Clean Water Act so it protects the health of our rivers, lakes, streams, and the millions of Americans who rely on them."

"These examples from across America make clear the urgent need for Congress to pass the Clean Water Restoration Act — every day that passes puts at risk America's streams, wetlands, and our sources of clean water," said Jim Murphy, wetlands & water resources counsel, National Wildlife Federation. "Robust wetlands, rivers, and streams are essential to help people and wildlife survive the impacts of global warming that include more intense storms, droughts and habitat loss."

"Since 2003, drinking water sources for 111 million Americans have been put at risk because of policies that give free reign to polluters," said Paul Schwartz, national policy coordinator, Clean Water Action. "This report shows that action by Congress is overdue."

"The Clean Water Act was created to broadly protect our nation's waters, including the many streams, ponds, and wetlands that provide recreation, fishing, wildlife habitat, and our drinking water," said Dalal Aboulhosn, clean water representative, Sierra Club. "Congress needs to step up now and reaffirm the Clean Water Act as it was originally intended before more of our waters are lost."

"The Clean Water Act is broken," said Joan Mulhern, senior legislative counsel, Earthjustice. "Every week that goes that Congress does not pass legislation to fix it, dozens of streams and wetlands — like those in this report — are lost to pollution and destruction. President Obama said during the campaign that he supports this legislation. There is no reason to wait any longer to address this dire problem."

"The rubber meets the road in the South where most of America's wetlands and its greatest growth collide," said Bill Sapp, senior attorney, Southern Environmental Law Center. "The Clean Water Restoration Act is crucial to protecting the South's valuable wetlands since many states have little or no protections in place."

The cases in Courting Disaster provide telling examples of how critical it is for Congress to reverse the damage done from the Supreme Court's decisions by restoring longstanding Clean Water Act protections. The Clean Water Restoration Act would accomplish this. This Act was introduced in the Senate two weeks ago. A similar bill should soon be introduced in the House.

About NRDC
The Natural Resources Defense Council is a national, nonprofit organization of scientists, lawyers and environmental specialists dedicated to protecting public health and the environment. Founded in 1970, NRDC has 1.2 million members and online activists, served from offices in New York, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Beijing.

The high cost of wastewater treatment is a major deterrent to treating it. NUALGI seeks to reduce this.

Sunday, April 19, 2009

NAA Conference on Algae

National Algae Association

Houston, Texas

Thursday, April 30

Welcome, Introductions and Overview on Algae by Barry Cohen, director of the NAA

Two Semester Curriculum update by Charles Bensinger NAA Director of Education

Algae Strains - Peter Kipp, NAA Director of Science and Technology

"Optimizing Lipid Production of Planktonic Algae Using FlowCAM Technology" -
Maria Stockenreiter, University of Munich

Breakout Sessions/Results - Will Thurmond, Emerging Markets Online

Supercritical CO2 - Brad Ulrich, MOR Technologies

Closed-end Loop Vertical Photobioreactor Demonstration - Hugh Morris, GRO-PEC
(*must sign NDA prior to viewing)

Closed-end Loop Horizontal Photobioreactor - ALGAELINK, Peter van den Dorpel

Multiple Level Raceway - Tian Kian Wee, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

OriginOil - T Riggs Eckelberry

"The Past, Present and Future of Algae Production" - Robin L. Ore, Femtobeam

New high powered laser to identify aquatic bacteria that feed on healthy algal
cells - Jim Mulry, Guava Technologies

"Next Generation Energy" - Ariel Martinez, Cellana

3rd Generation Renewable Fuels competition - Matt Peak, Prize Capital

Friday, May 1

"Converting Algae to Food and Fuel" - David Johnston, Aquatic Energy

"Algae Pro Closed Loop Photobioreactor" - Dennis Fisher, BioCentrics

"FlowCAM Instrumentation for Monitoring Algae for Biofuel Production"

Kent Peterson, Fluid Imaging

Various Algae Growing Equipment - Bob Wheeler, Aquatic Eco-SystemsCentrifuges

Don Konuszewski, B&P Processors

Alternate Uses of Algae Residues Remaining after Biodiesel Production

Dr. Louis Landesman, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia State University

VGA Solar Algae Production System: A New System Design for Combined Growing And
"Harvesting Algae Utilizing Flue Gas" - William A. Walsh, Jr., VGA Nozzle

"Policy Implications of Success with Algae and Why it's Vital that the US be a
Leader" - Congressman H Teague (D-NM)


A preliminary agenda for the conference will be available on the Association's
website,, along with registration information.
For further information: 936.321.1125

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Chesapeake Bay Program Annual Report: More Bad News for the Bay

Chesapeake Bay Program Annual Report: More Bad News for the Bay

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program latest Bay Barometer has given the Bay's health a score of 38 percent out of 100 percent in terms of the estuary's recover.

According to the report, despite increased restoration efforts, water quality in the Bay is still poor, habitats continue to be degraded and populations of several key fish and shellfish species, including blue crabs, oysters and shad, remain low.

However, there was some good news. The Chesapeake Bay Program exceeded its goal for land preservation, with 7.3 million acres permanently protected from development. Underwater grasses, which provide shelter for aquatic life, improve water clarity, increase oxygen and reduce shoreline erosion, grew by 18 percent, and now total 76,861 acres.

Most of the problems of the Bay can be attributed to excess nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment entering the water, according to the report, which said that the main sources of these pollutants are agriculture, urban and suburban runoff, sewage treatment plants, and air pollution.

The complete Bay Barometer report is available online.

Friday, April 10, 2009

Hundreds of dead fish surface in Amber Lake, Hyderabad

Hundreds of dead fish surface in Amber Lake
Staff Reporter
During Nizam’s rule lake meant for potable water
Death of fish due to lack of dissolved oxygen

Eco crisis?: Dead fish afloat on the shores of the lake on Friday.

HYDERABAD: The very mention of Amber Lake in Pragatinagar, Kukatpally reminds one of palatial villas, duplex apartments and plush independent houses.

But, the lake also known as Shamshiguda lake had transformed into an unusual sight for many residents since Wednesday as hundreds of dead fish were found floating along the shoreline of lake. The place was crammed with inquisitive locals, trying to glean reasons behind the phenomenon.

“It was really a pitiable sight. Even big fish were dead and floating. We request officials concerned to take necessary steps to address the problem,” said M. Sree Harshini, an assistant manager with an MNC and resident of Pragatinagar.


The lake served drinking water needs of people of Shamshiguda, Kukatpally and surrounding areas during erstwhile Nizam’s rule and now it became polluted owing dumping of industrial waste and sewerage and alleged official apathy to the problem.

Residents explained that they had never witnessed this phenomenon earlier. “It’s still a mystery to us as to how the fish died. Initially, we suspected that unidentified persons might have contaminated water with some chemical substance,” said a washerman T. Subba Rao of Sriramnagar Colony.

Environmentalists attributed the sudden death of fish to lack of dissolved oxygen so vital for survival of fish. Another factor would be effluents directly released from nearby industries and sewerage from colonies, into the lake.

“There are many reasons for fish deaths but exact causes can be ascertained only after testing water samples,” said environmentalist P. Anuradha Reddy.

Pragathinagar Grama Panchayat Upa Sarpanch Ch. Sudhir Reddy said, a representation was given to the Chief Minister two years ago requesting construction of a water treatment plant.

Fish Kills 2009

A few videos on youtube showing fish kills in USA in 2009

Big Fish Kill on Big Eau Pleine
By Paul A. Smith of the Journal Sentinel
Apr. 2, 2009

As the ice recedes from Wisconsin waters, the annual assessment of winter fish kills begins. One of the biggest of the season is being reported on Big Eau Pleine Reservoir near Wausau.

According to Tom Meronek, DNR fisheries biologist in Wausau, as many as 70 to 80 percent of the fish in the lower section of Big Eau Pleine may have died.

While some fish kills are natural, the Big Eau Pleine event is being linked to water management practices and runoff from agricultural sources. The water level this winter reached 17 feet below full pool, according to Mike Paul, vice president of the Big Eau Pleine Citizens Organization (BEPCO).

"That's about as low as it's ever been," said Paul. "Some fish got stranded in pools and died. Others got hit by the low oxygen level and couldn't survive."

Rafts of dead fish are washing up on shorelines in the 6,830-acre impoundment on the Big Eau Plaine River. The reservoir connects to Lake DuBay and the Wisconsin River system. The dead fish include walleye, northern pike, crappie, musky and rough fish.

The water's dissolved oxygen level dropped to 0.1 to 0.2 parts per million, said Meronek, so low that even carp and bullhead couldn't survive.

Although an aerator was used to help increase oxygen levels, it couldn't prevent the fish kill. Meronek said levels of oxygen were higher in some of the riverine arms of the reservoir; it won't be known until later this month how many fish survived by swimming into such areas.

The large fish kill is particularly disheartening to anglers; the Big Eau Pleine had become a prized destination for walleye in recent years. Walleye, northern pike and crappie reproduced naturally and showed good growth rates in the reservoir. Only musky were stocked, according to the DNR.

According to a 2003 DNR fisheries assessment, the reservoir had about 7 adult walleye per acre. And in spring 2006, after yet another kill, the DNR found 250 walleye per hour in a shoreline electroshocking survey.

"The numbers of walleye were outstanding," said Meronek. "We'll do another assessment this month to help understand how bad the fish kill was."

The lake, which receives substantial agricultural runoff, has been hit with numerous fish kills in the last decade.

The water levels in Big Eau Pleine are controlled by the Wisconsin Valley Improvement Corporation; it uses water in the reservoir to provide power for the area, including paper mills. WVIC has a permit from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that allows it to lower water levels to 17 feet below full pool.

So it was acting within its permit this winter. But BEPCO, the local citizens' group, intends to petition FERC to alter the permit.

"We've got to get the water level maintained at a higher minimum level," said Paul. "This can't happen again."

Perhaps one of the bright spots in a grim story is this - after successive fish kills, local citizens decided they needed to organize and become active in issues related to the flowage. BEPCO was formed just three months ago, said Paul.

The fishery is likely to take several years to recover. Meronek said results of the DNR's walleye assessment should be known at the end of April.

In southeastern Wisconsin, some dead fish have been reported on Big Muskego Lake, on Vern Wolf Lake in Kenosha County and on the boating channels around Okauchee Lake. But the numbers are pretty typical, said Sue Beyler, area fisheries supervisor for the DNR, and not cause for special concern.

Anglers or others who spot unusual numbers of dead fish are encouraged to contact their local DNR office.

Tuesday, April 7, 2009


Huge Man-Made Algae Swarm Devoured--Bad for Climate?Kelly Hearn
for National Geographic News

March 27, 2009

A giant experiment went awry at sea this month.

Shrimplike animals devoured 159 square miles (300 square kilometers) of artificially stimulated algae meant to fight global warming—casting serious doubt on ocean fertilization as a climate-control tool.

Can Iron-Enriched Oceans Thwart Global Warming?
For years, scientists have proposed supercharging algae growth by dumping tons of iron into the ocean.

Iron is a necessary element for algae photosynthesis—the process by which the plants convert sunlight into energy—but it is relatively rare in the ocean.

Algae suck carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming, out of the atmosphere. The algae then generally fall to the seafloor—sequestering the CO2 indefinitely.

About a dozen such "iron fertilization" experiments have already been done—with mixed success.

But experts have warned of unintended consequences, such as unpredictable reactions in the ecosystem.

And that's just what happened during a recent, large-scale iron dump in the South Atlantic, the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany announced this week.

Surprising Blooms

With the greenish, crystalline look of a pulverized windshield, ferrous sulfate is commonly given to iron-deficient humans.

It's also the iron of choice for boosting algae growth.

Working aboard the German research vessel Polarstern, German and Indian scientists in recent weeks mixed ten tons of ferrous sulfate with seawater. The team then pumped the artificially enhanced water back into the Atlantic outside Argentina's coastal waters.

As expected, the experiment created a massive, CO2-eating algae bloom.

But it was the wrong algae.
The blooms were mostly tiny haptophytes, not the larger diatom algae the team had expected.

The smaller algae variety is typically found only in coastal waters, and it's a favorite food of tiny shrimplike crustaceans called copepods.

The copepods wolfed down the algae shortly after the new South Atlantic bloom appeared—and a potential weapon against global warming quickly disappeared.

"The fact that they are rapidly eaten by marine animals is not good for carbon sequestration," said Ulrich Bathmann, head of bioscience at the Alfred Wegener Polar and Oceanography Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, who was involved in the experiment.

Good News? Bad News?

Experts not part of the new experiment are divided on what the results mean.

"The new finding here is that the standard calculations of 'the number of tons of iron in equals the number of tons of carbon out' probably don't actually work," said Gabriel M. Filippelli, an earth sciences professor at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.

"This calls into question the efficacy of iron fertilization as a solution to global warming."

(Read about other global warming solutions.)

Iron-fertilization supporters, though, remain hopeful.

"These results neither argue for nor against iron fertilization as a carbon-sequestration strategy," said Kenneth Coale, director of California-based Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.

Moss Landing scientists created a similar, though smaller, algae bloom in Antarctic waters in 2002.

On the bright side, Coale said, the experiment adds to evidence that iron can stimulate large-scale algae growth. It's not clear that in every instance animals would gobble up the carbon-sucking plants, he says.

Other experiments have also had better success at sequestering carbon, Coale added.

And regardless of its carbon-sequestration success or failure, Coale said, at least the South Atlantic experiment did not damage the local ocean environment—which would have been a more serious black mark on iron fertilization.

The consensus, though, seems to fall somewhere on the fence, said environmental scientist Andrew Watson of the University of East Anglia, U.K.

The recent experiment, Watson said via email, "shows that we still haven't learned by any means all there is to know about the effects of iron on marine ecosystems and the carbon balance in the oceans."

Mighty diatoms: Global climate feedback from microscopic algae

Mighty diatoms: Global climate feedback from microscopic algae

Published: March 16, 2009 E-mail Editor

Zoology professor Elena Litchman, who works at MSU's Kellogg Biological Station.

Click on an image to view a larger or high-resolution version.
EAST LANSING, Mich. — Tiny creatures at the bottom of the food chain called diatoms suck up nearly a quarter of the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide, yet research by Michigan State University scientists suggests they could become less able to “sequester” that greenhouse gas as the climate warms. The microscopic algae are a major component of plankton living in puddles, lakes and oceans.

Zoology professor Elena Litchman, with MSU colleague Christopher Klausmeier and Kohei Yoshiyama of the University of Tokyo, explored how nutrient limitation affects the evolution of the size of diatoms in different environments. Their findings underscore potential consequences for aquatic food webs and climate shifts.

“They are globally important since they ‘fix’ a significant amount of carbon,” Litchman explained of the single-cell diatoms. “When they die in the ocean, they sink to the bottom carrying the carbon from the atmosphere with them. They perform a tremendous service to the environment.”

Carbon dioxide buildup, due to a significant extent to burning fossil fuels and deforestation, is identified as the leading cause of climate change. Carbon dioxide is at its highest level in at least 650,000 years and rising, according to The National Academies, and only half of the CO2 produced now can be absorbed by plant life.

Litchman analyzed data from lakes and oceans across the United States, Europe and Asia and found a striking difference between the size of diatoms in freshwater and in marine environments. In oceans, diatoms grow to be 10 times larger on average than in freshwater and have a wider range of sizes.

One factor that affects growth is nutrient availability, Litchman said. The research shows that limitations by nitrogen and phosphorus exert different selective pressures on cell size. The availability of these nutrients depends on the mixing of water from greater depths. Using a mathematical model, Litchman and her colleagues found that when those nutrients are constantly limited and mixing is shallow, smaller diatoms thrive.

But when nitrate comes and goes, as often happens in roiling oceans, diatoms evolve larger to store nutrients for lean times. Deep mixing also benefits large diatoms. Depending on how intermittent the nitrate supply is and how deep the ocean mixes, there can be a wide range of diatom sizes. Size matters for the creatures that eat them and also for carbon sequestration, as large diatoms are more likely to sink when they die.

Changing climate could alter the mixing depths and delivery of nutrients to diatoms and their subsequent sizes with a cascade of consequences, Litchman said.

“On a global scale, increased ocean temperatures could make the ocean more stratified,” she explained. “This would cause less mixing and create stronger nutrient limitation and less frequent nutrient pulses. A change like this would select for different sizes of diatoms. If smaller sized diatoms dominate, then carbon sequestration becomes less efficient and there may be more CO2 remaining in the atmosphere, which would exacerbate global warming.”

Litchman and colleagues’ research was supported by the National Science Foundation and the J.S. McDonnell Foundation. Their findings were published Feb. 24 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Michigan State University has been advancing knowledge and transforming lives through innovative teaching, research and outreach for more than 150 years. MSU is known internationally as a major public university with global reach and extraordinary impact. Its 17 degree-granting colleges attract scholars worldwide who are interested in combining education with practical problem solving.

Contact: Michael Steger, College of Natural Science, Office: (517) 432-4561,; Elena Litchman, Zoology,, Office: (269) 671-2338

Fouling of ship bottoms

"Visscher stated that over $100,000,000 was spent annually by United States shipping interests alone, because of fouling."


The tendency of ships to foul is related to the type of service in which they are employed, and, particularly, to the resulting time spent in port. This follows from the fact discussed in Chapter 13 that the larvae of many fouling organisms have
diffculty in attaching to submerged surfaces when the velocity of the water across the surface excceeds about one knot. At greater speeds than this, the growth of some organisms previously attached is also supressed, particularly if they have not been long established, and at high speeds the attached organisms may be washed away bodily."

Fouling occurs only when ships are in port due to high level of bacteria, algae and weeds in the port water. This is linked to the high nutrient / pollutant level of water in the port. If water in ports were to be treated to keep the nutrient level low then perhaps fouling can be minimised.

It has been observed the roots of Water Hyacinth have a white gel like substance and this becomes loose over time in water in which Nualgi is used regularly. A similar effect would probably be felt on ship bottoms.

Friday, April 3, 2009

Dead Zones in oceans

A brief video on Dead Zones in Oceans.




Nuisance caused by eutrophication

unusual algal bloom: Uroglena americana (1977-1985), Peridinium spp. (since 1972), Anabaena spp. (since 1965), etc. Overgrowth of exotic water weeds: Elodea nuttallii (1965-1970, 1980-) and Egeric densa (1971-1975). Disturbed filtration in cleaning beds for city water: Since 1959. Foul smell of tap water: Since 1969; mainly due to the generation of geosmin associated with the bloom of Phormidium, Anabaena, etc.

The Northern Lake remained oligotrophic until around 1955, though the eutrophication had already started in pre-war days as seen in the past trend of transparency in Fig. ASI-1-4. However, it was suddenly accelerated by the post-war industrialization of the lake's catchment area. The first clogging trouble in the sand filter of a city water supply to Kyoto took place as early as in 1959. Between 1960 and 1965, drastic changes in the biomass and species composition of plankters and benthic animals became apparent. The plankton biomass increased almost tenfold since 1950 (Fig. ASI-1-11), while the primary productivity in Northern Lake nearly doubled between 1965 and 1985. Algal blooms, particularly the so-called "freshwater red tide" caused by Uroglena americana, and the resultant unpleasant smell of tap water from the lake became a matter of keen social concern.

The Water Pollution Control Law legislated in 1970 abated the rate of eutrophication to a considerable extent through the regulation of nutrient level in industrial effluents, but the deterioration of lake water quality did not stop at all due to the steady growth of population and industrial activity in the catchment. The construction of an extensive sewerage network started in 1972 within the framework of the Lake Biwa Comprehensive Development Project, though its progress has been slow owing to the financial burden to local communities.

The residents' voluntary movement against the use of phosphate-containing synthetic detergents resulted in the ban of their use in 1980 by the enforcement of a prefectural ordinance for the prevention of eutrophication of L. Biwa. The P content of lake water was thereby somewhat reduced in past several years, but the effect of the ordinance has been only marginal. To prevent further eutrophication, it seems urgent to take new measures at least until the completion of the sewerage network.

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Biodiesel from Wastewater - Unv of Michigan Project

Mar. 24, 2009

Team Algal Scientific wins Clean Energy Prize

Click for video ANN ARBOR, Mich.— A plan to use algae to simultaneously treat wastewater and produce the raw materials for biofuels has won the inaugural Clean Energy Prize.

The competition was sponsored by DTE Energy, the University of Michigan, the Masco Corporation Foundation and the Kresge Foundation to encourage entrepreneurship in Michigan and the development of clean energy technology.

Team Algal Scientific Corp., comprised of business, engineering and ecology students from the University of Michigan and Michigan State University, earned the top prize of $65,000 at the competition Friday (March 20). Their business plan rose to the top in a field of 23 teams.

“We put a lot of effort in, and we had tough competition,” said team member Bobby Levine, a doctoral student in the U-M Department of Chemical Engineering. “I think we still have a lot of work to do, but we’re excited to plan the next phase.”

Gerard Anderson, DTE Energy president and chief operating officer, presented the awards and told team members and other attendees that the development of new energy technologies holds promise for a cleaner environment and a more robust economy.

“With this in mind, we developed the Clean Energy Prize to serve as a catalyst for students and faculty to bring clean energy technologies from university labs to the market,” he said. “We also see this prize as one of many steps toward recapturing Michigan’s past spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship.”

In Algal Scientific Corp.’s wastewater treatment system, algae would take up nutrients at wastewater treatment plants in a more economical and environmentally friendly way than the current state of the art. This method uses no chemicals. Then, the nutrient-packed algae would be harvested and sent to a plant to be converted directly to biofuels. Team members say they’re addressing two major global concerns: clean water and clean energy.

Why use Green Algae?
Diatom Algae can do a better job and it need not be harvested, it can be allowed to be consumed by Zooplankton and Fish.
Green Algae has to be harvested and this would be quite expensive.